1EG4217/EG7217 Advanced CommunicationsIntroductionThe laboratory work is intended to give students the opportunity to put the material in thismodule into practice and to gain a critical understanding of the models presented in the lectures.The coursework component of the module consists of five work sheets, to be done in your owntime as there are no scheduled laboratory classes. By necessity, these models are somewhatsimplistic, as the module covers a broad range of subjects. A critical understanding of the modelsmeans not only knowing what inputs and outputs are relevant to each model, but also being ableto comment on the relevance and accuracy of the output. Marks will be awarded for all theseaspects.The results, discussion and conclusions arising from this and subsequent exercises should bewritten in an electronic lab-book (MS Word or similar), along with any graphical output from theprogrammes. This is not a formal report, but it should still be clearly laid out and all variablesshould be defined. The results should be in sentence fore, rather than just cut and pasted fromthe Matlab window. For example, the following is inadequate:‘>> d=sqrt(2*a*ht)d =99.5359’and should be replaced by:‘The horizon distance was calculated from the formula d=sqrt(2*a*ht), where a is the earth radiusin km and ht is the antenna height in km. It was found to be 99.5 km.’Matlab code should not be put in the lab-book. If possible, please convert the finished lab-bookto pdf format before uploading it to the EG4217/EG7217 Blackboard site. The mark for the labbook contributes 50% of the total marks available for the module.You must upload the document by 12.00 noon on Wednesday 24th November 2021. Latesubmissions will lose 10% of the total possible mark for the first 24 hours or part thereof, and anadditional 5% for each subsequent 24 hour period or part thereof.You are reminded that while the outputs of the software will be the same for many students, thediscussions and conclusions must be your own work. All work that is not your own MUST bereferenced in your logbook. When you submit your work you must include the followingparagraph at the beginning of your lab-book:I declare that this assignment is my own work, that sources of reference are acknowledged and thatit has not been submitted for any other course. I understand that plagiarism is a serious offenceunder the University’s regulations and that appropriate penalties will be applied if I am found tohave submitted plagiarised work.The softwareThe Matlab programs are available from the module Blackboard site. They do not need to bealtered or edited. To run a Matlab model, download it from the Blackboard site and place it in anewly made directory called, for example, “AdvComCoursework”, which should be on your Zdrive (your personal space on the UoL computer system that can be accessed from any computeron campus). Then open Matlab and navigate to the AdvComCoursework directory. You shouldsee the programme in the part of the Matlab window called “Current Folder”.Now move your cursor to the part of the window marked “Command Window” You should seethe prompt “>>”. Type the name of the program, followed by round brackets and the value of anyinput parameters (as numbers), separated by commas. If you’re unsure what the inputparameters are, then double-click on the programme in “Current Folder” and the programme’s2code will appear in the part of the window marked “Editor”. The first line of code will tell you therequired parameters and their correct order.For example, to run freespace.m type freespace(1000,50)This will return the calculated value of free-space loss for a 1000 MHz radio wave that travels50km.Some additional Matlab code may need to be written to present the results in the mostappropriate format (see below). Many of the Matlab functions accept one of the input parametersin vector form, allowing the output parameter to be plotted in one line, e.g.plot([1:20],freespace(1000,[1:20]))will plot out the freespace loss from 1 to 20km in 1km steps for a 1GHz signal. A slower, but amore C- or Fortran-like, alternative isfor range=1:20loss(range)=freespace(1000,range);endplot([1:20],loss,‘k’) %‘k’ means draw line in blackAll of the functions are sufficiently well documented by comments to explain what they do andwhat inputs are required. You should have a reasonable grasp what each model does beforerunning the code. Please be careful to look at the units of each input variable and then useappropriate values. A few extra Matlab commands may be useful (look up the details using theonline help, e.g. at the command line type help subplot):• hold on : enables multiple lines to be drawn on the same axes• subplot : can be used to generate multiple axes on the same piece of paper• orient landscape (or tall) : sets the paper in the given orientation• title, xlabel and ylabel : add the appropriate axis labels and title to your graph• print –dtiff : saves the current figure in tiff format(which can be imported into word).• plot : see the help for details of how to add plot symbols, introduce dashed lines, etc.Coursework 1Task 1freespace.mThis programme calculates free space loss assuming isotropic antennas. We shall investigate theeffect of frequency and distance on the loss.Plot the free-space loss for ranges between 1 km and 60 km for radio frequencies 100 MHz and1 GHz.To make this curve easy for the reader to view and understand:Plot these curves in different colours on the same graph using ‘hold on’.Add a graticule using the command ‘grid on’Add a legend using the command ‘legend’.Add axis labels using ‘xlabel’ and ‘ylabel’, not forgetting units.Add a figure number and caption to the plotAdd some text, referring to Figure 1 and describing the trend.Explain why loss increases with distance.(Subsequent outputs should also all have these embellishments to make them clear.)Task 2planereflec2.mThis function calculates the loss associated with propagation over a plane earth using the two-rayground model and assuming isotropic antennas..a) Plot the loss as a function of Tx-Rx distance for distances between 10km and 100 km,transmit and receive antennas of height 80 m and frequencies 500 MHz and 1 GHz.b) What physical factors limit the values of range for which the model can be used?c) Explain why the loss values form peaks at certain distances3Task 3No Matlab programme neededPlot a graph of the maximum distance for which two antennas of equal height can maintain aline-of-sight link, assuming a smooth spherical earth. The graph should show maximum distancein km as a function of antenna height in m for antennas of height 5 to 100m. Use the formula d =sqrt(2* R* ht) + sqrt(2* R* hr), where ht and hr are the heights of the transmit and receiveantennas respectively and R is the effective earth radius, as shown in the lecture.Task 4p526.mThis programme implements the model found in ITU Recommendation P526 (on the Bb site) forpropagation loss beyond the radio horizon. It outputs the extra loss in dB due to diffraction of theradio signal over the curvature of the earth for over-the-horizon radio links.Plot the diffraction loss predicted by this model as a function of distance for a vertically polarisedradio wave of frequency 6 GHz travelling over the sea and antenna heights of 100m. How muchdiffraction loss is caused at the maximum LOS distance ?Task 5Using all the programmes mentioned aboveFigure 1 shows the Channel Islands, which are situated in the English Channel between the UKand France. An omnidirectional antenna with 2dB of gain transmits vertically polarised radiowaves with a power of 30 watts and a frequency of 500 MHz and from the highest point on theisland of Jersey (150 m above the mean sea level). Jersey is marked as the dot next to the letter Jin Figure 1. The transmitter broadcasts a radio service to Guernsey (marked G in Figure 1),Alderney (marked A) , Portland (P) and Leicester (L). One more receiver (not shown on the map)is placed at location J2, in sight of the transmitter antenna at 300 m distance for diagnosticpurposes. Between it and the transmitter antenna the ground is hilly and tree covered.All receive antennas have 2 dB gain. Gains are not included in the loss values given in the table.Complete the following table using the three programmes already introduced:L1 = loss calculated using freespace.m,L2 = loss calculated using planereflec2.m,L3 = loss calculated using p526.m,In the next column, consider the three different loss estimates given by the models, and choosewhich one you think applies best to the path in question (L1, L2 or L3). Then do a power budgetcalculation using this value to get the value of Received power (Best Estimate) in decibels.State reasoning for each case. High precision is not expected in this exercise. ReceiverLocationDistancefromJersey(km)ReceiveAntennaheight (m)L1L2L3ReceivedpowerdBW(BestEstimate)Guernsey3310Alderney50125Location J20.31Portland10130Leicester384 In this task, you should assume1 degree of latitude = 111km1 degree of longitude = 72 km at this latitude4Figure 1 The Channel IslandsFig 2 Inset of Figure 1 -3-2-1Degrees East 4848.54949.55050.55151.55252.553Degrees North J.A.P.L. G.United KingdomFrance-3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1Degrees East48.84949.249.449.649.850Degrees North J.G.A.
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