1Be able to identify research problemsand formulate research objectives.What is Research?Research means to carefully analyse the problems or to do the detailed study of the specificproblems, by making use of the special scientific methods. Research could be done on anytopic, be it medical, non- medical, IT, or anything else. In order to do a research, first of all, youneed to have a topic or the problem on which you can do research. The topic must haverelevant questions to answer.For research, certain steps have to be followed like first observation, then background researchthen preparing of hypothesis, eventually conducting a simple experiment.The Importance of Research:Study implications:The main purpose of the research is to get deep into the topic so that something helpful can bechurned out which can be helpful for everybody and used in that particular niche sector.Thequality which you maintain while research, should always be high so that the information thatyou get can be used in certain policy and any future project implications.Goals of Research:Working on a research project will obviously be a challenging and rewarding experience,provided you put the best of your expertise and skill in it.It is an opportunity which helps you topursue an in-depth or deep original study about any topic which interests you.The main aim ofthe goals is to provide the best of the solution to some of the world problems and also toenhance our knowledge.2The “Iterative” Process of Research:Iteration is one of the keys for a successful research. Researches usually do not end; the studygoes on deep and deep.There may be instances when you will take the time to find theexpected results but ultimately you will be getting the outcome.One thing that you will alwaysobserve during research, are the questions which arises one after the other. These questionsusually lead to new ideas, revisions, and improvements.The function of research design:The function of a research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables you toeffectively address the research problem as unambiguously as possible. In social sciencesresearch, obtaining evidence relevant to the research problem generally entails specifying thetype of evidence needed to test a theory, to evaluate a program, or to accurately describe aphenomenon. However, researchers can often begin their investigations far too early, beforethey have thought critically about what information is required to answer the study’s researchquestions. Without attending to these design issues beforehand, the conclusions drawn riskbeing weak and unconvincing and, consequently, will fail to adequate address the overallresearch problem.Given this, the length and complexity of research designs can vary considerably, but any sounddesign will do the following things:1. Identify the research problem clearly and justify its selection,2. Review previously published literature associated with the problem area,3. Clearly and explicitly specify hypotheses [i.e., research questions] central to the problemselected,4. Effectively describe the data which will be necessary for an adequate test of thehypotheses and explain how such data will be obtained, and5. Describe the methods of analysis which will be applied to the data in determiningwhether or not the hypotheses are true or false.3The above mentioned content isreferredhttps://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185902What is Educational Research?Any kind of educational research requires a few steps of inquiry to provide the solution to anyparticular research query.Creswell defines educational research as,“…Aside from the pure pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, research is linked to problemsolving,” John Armstrong, a respected global higher education, and research professional writefor The Conversation.Types of Educational Research:There are majorly 3 types of educational research.Descriptive:This type of research will try to describe things as they presently are.Correlation:This type of studies will try to identify the relationship between two or more things.Experimental:This research tries to display a relation between two or more things. They usually might begroups.The Importance of Research in the Advancement of Society:“Human needs never end”. Believe it or not, but it is the truth. We have been habituated toadaptability to new things, as our desires and wants increases day by day.As our demandsincreases, the requirement of research also rises. It can also be said that research is what thatmakes our lives easier. It is just the result of the curiosity or anew new innovative idea.4When we have any problem, get an idea or are confused by many questions what do you thinkwill the next big thing?Why Research is Important to Students?The research is important for the students because it helps them to have a detailed analysis ofeverything. When you have proper in-depth analysis on any topic, the result comes out to befruitful and also the knowledge is enhanced. Other benefits of research to the students are asfollows:1. Enhances the knowledge:When you do research on any topic, you get to know detailed information about that topic. Themore the knowledge of the topic, the more successful is the research. So, in order to get goodoutput, the student needs to do maximum research.2. Clarifies confusion:The research helps in clarifying the complicated facts and figures. If the student has any doubton the subject, the student must research and study on it in detail so as to remove all sorts ofconfusion and get the proper understanding of the content.3. To have a proper understanding of the subject:To understand the subject, one needs to go in depth of the lines. The scanning of the contentwill never do any good for the students.In order to learn the subject and to know the unknownfacts, research, detail study and full analysis are the must.4. To learn about the methods and issues:Proper reading, the finding is the only way by which you can learn about the methods and thecurrent issues. Not just the current issues, rather the previous past issues can also be learned indetail through the research. The research includes various methods by which it can be done.55. Understand the published work:Research is done through the work already published. The experts and the researchers hadalready done some of the research and the students are asked to go through that publishedmaterial to know the idea and the vision of those researchers.6. Learn to create a balance between the collaborative andindividual work:When the students do research, they get to learn how to create a balance between thecollaborative and the individual work. Individual work in which the student has to do, while thecollaborative work means that work which has already been done by the previous researchers.So, in this manner, the students get to know which points are to be taken into theconsideration and which points are to be ignored.7. To know the interest:The students also get to know their area of interest. Sometimes, the students aspire to becomeresearchers only in their near future which is quite helpful.So, through this, we come to know that the research not only helps with the accomplishment ofthe work, but also helps in knowing what needs to be done in their future.8. To know how the original study originated:Research is done to know the concept from the scratch. Like, if you wish to know from wherethe concept has originated, then this could be done only through the research work.It can also be defined as an investigation because the student eventually ends up withexpanded research.69. Understanding the rationale:By engaging in the process of research, the students understand the concept in an easiermanner as the rationale of the topic is known in a better manner.For example, by preparing the hypothesis, one truly understands the nuances of the researchtopic. Not just this, the research also helps in being a source of one-on-one mentorship whichalso plays a vital role in the brain development of the individual.Organizing Academic Research Papers: Theoretical Framework:Theories are formulated to explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases, tochallenge and extend existing knowledge, within the limits of the critical bounding assumptions.The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a theory of a researchstudy. The theoretical framework introduces and describes the theory which explains why theresearch problem under study exists.A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and existingtheory/theories that are used for your particular study. The theoretical framework mustdemonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic ofyour research paper and that will relate it to the broader fields of knowledge in the class youare taking.The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. Youmust review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic modelsthat are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theoryshould depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power.The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways.1. An explicit statement of theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate themcritically.72. The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by arelevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of researchmethods.3. Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to addressquestions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing aphenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon.4. Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoreticalframework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alertsyou to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances.By virtue of its application nature, good theory in the social sciences is of value preciselybecause it fulfils one primary purpose: to explain the meaning, nature, and challenges of aphenomenon, often experienced but unexplained in the world in which we live, so that we mayuse that knowledge and understanding to act in more informed and effective ways.How to develop a framework:Here are some strategies to develop of an effective theoretical framework:1. Examine your thesis title and research problem. The research problem anchors yourentire study and forms the basis from which you construct your theoretical framework.2. Brainstorm on what you consider to be the key variables in your research. Answer thequestion, what factors contribute to the presumed effect?3. Review related literature to find answers to your research question.4. List the constructs and variables that might be relevant to your study. Group thesevariables into independent and dependent categories.5. Review the key social science theories that are introduced to you in your coursereadings and choose the theory or theories that can best explain the relationshipsbetween the key variables in your study [note the Writing Tip on this page].6. Discuss the assumptions or propositions of this theory and point out their relevance toyour research.8A theoretical framework is used to limit the scope of the relevant data by focusing on specificvariables and defining the specific viewpoint (framework) that the researcher will take inanalysing and interpreting the data to be gathered, understanding concepts and variablesaccording to the given definitions, and building knowledge by validating or challengingtheoretical assumptions.Think of theories as the conceptual basis for understanding, analysing, and designing ways toinvestigate relationships within social systems. To the end, the following roles served by atheory can help guide the development of your framework.• Means by which new research data can be interpreted and coded for future use,• Response to new problems that have no previously identified solutions strategy,• Means for identifying and defining research problems,• Means for prescribing or evaluating solutions to research problems,• Way of telling us that certain facts among the accumulated knowledge are importantand which facts are not,• Means of giving old data new interpretations and new meaning,• Means by which to identify important new issues and prescribe the most criticalresearch questions that need to be answered to maximize understanding of the issue,• Means of providing members of a professional discipline with a common language and aframe of reference for defining boundaries of their profession, and• Means to guide and inform research so that it can, in turn, guide research efforts andimprove professional practice.The theoretical framework may be rooted in a specific theory, in which case, you are expectedto test the validity of an existing theory in relation to specific events, issues, or phenomena.Many social science research papers fit into this rubric. For example, Peripheral Realism theory,which categorizes perceived differences between nation-states as those that give orders, thosethat obey, and those that rebel, could be used as a means for understanding conflictedrelationships among countries in Africa. A test of this theory could be the following: Does9Peripheral Realism theory help explain intra-state actions, such as, the growing split betweensouthern and northern Sudan that may likely lead to the creation of two nations?However, you may not always be asked by your professor to test a specific theory in yourpaper, but to develop your own framework from which your analysis of the research problem isderived. Given this, it is perhaps easiest to understand the nature and function of a theoreticalframework if it is viewed as the answer to two basic questions:1. What is the research problem/question? [e.g., “How should the individual and the staterelate during periods of conflict?”]2. Why is your approach a feasible solution? [I could choose to test Instrumentalist orCircumstantiality models developed among Ethnic Conflict Theorists that rely uponsocio-economic-political factors to explain individual-state relations and to apply thistheoretical model to periods of war between nations].The answers to these questions come from a thorough review of the literature and your coursereadings [summarized and analysed in the next section of your paper] and the gaps in theresearch that emerge from the review process. With this in mind, a complete theoreticalframework will likely not emerge until after you have completed a thorough review of theliterature.In writing this part of your research paper, keep in mind the following:• Clearly describe the framework, concepts, models, or specific theories that underpinyour study. This includes noting who the key theorists are in the field who haveconducted research on the problem you are investigating and, when necessary, thehistorical context that supports the formulation of that theory. This latter element isparticularly important if the theory is relatively unknown or it is borrowed from anotherdiscipline.• Position your theoretical framework within a broader context of related frameworks,concepts, models, or theories. There will likely be several concepts, theories, or models10that can be used to help develop a framework for understanding the research problem.Therefore, note why the framework you’ve chosen is the appropriate one.• The present tense is used when writing about theory.• You should make your theoretical assumptions as explicit as possible. Later, yourdiscussion of methodology should be linked back to this theoretical framework.• Don’t just take what the theory says as a given! Reality is never accurately representedin such a simplistic way; if you imply that it can be, you fundamentally distort a reader’sability to understand the findings that emerge. Given this, always note the limitations ofthe theoretical framework you’ve chosen [i.e., what parts of the research problemrequire further investigation because the theory does not explain a certainphenomenon].So, above are the reasons by which we come to know the benefits of the research for thestudents.What is the Importance of Research to Humankind?Humankind involves everything from a pin to an elephant. Every bit of information, the thingsto live and survive are needed for the mankind, should be known.As if the essentials will not be known then we will remain illiterate, unaware of what ishappening in the society or around the world. Research is important for the humankindbecause of the various factors:1. Helps in understanding the society:When one does some research related to the society, the man becomes aware and also alert ofthe good and bad things. In order to know the society’s norms, policies, code of conduct,oneneed to do proper research or it may become difficult to survive in the society.2. Helps in knowing the culture:11Every society has its own culture. In order to understand the culture of a particular society,research about that society is needed.If you do not do research or read maximum about anytopic, you will fail to know the hidden meanings and the concepts about the society’s cultureand will remain unaware about the same. So, if you are curious to know and learn somethingnew, then the research work will help.3. For more awareness, research is needed:To make you aware, reading is the key. Read the published books and the research alreadydone by an expert.Once you have gone through the research work of great alumni, you feel like being on the topof the world as the information flows into your head. Not just this, if you wish to plan anyholiday, you become aware of the weather and the requirements of that particular place.4. for making the right choices for a career:Research is needed in all fields, i.e. it is pervasive. For even the smallest information, one needsto research and understand.For example, if you need to know about the careers with greater scope overseas, you will haveto do research for that too. So, this way research is of great importance to everyone, be it astudent, a traveller, teacher, professor, researcher himself.5. Knowing the truth:If you wish to know the truth about anything, reading, learning, and research is the only way.When you read and research on any topic, you get to know the truth.6. Update about the technology:12If there comes any new technology, the human gets to know about that also through theresearch work.So, basic research is helpful to human to know what new is coming in themarket. Also, it helps in being updated about the present scenario of the society one is living in.7. Differences between good and bad:When a person reads the already published material, it builds trust and also enlightens one’smind. The person is able to differentiate between right and the wrong which further helpsin decision making process.So, above are the reasons which say why one should do research or what is the importance ofresearch. It is for the whole of mankind, which involves individuals from every group and age.Whatever an individual reads, it somewhere and at sometime surely helps as it getsaccumulated in the knowledge bank of an individual.Why is Research Important in Education?As earlier said, the role of research is important in all fields, in a similar manner, the importanceof research in education is very vital. This is because of various reasons like:1. It is a systematic analysis:In education, research is essential as it gives the systematic analysis of the topic. Also, theobjectives are clearly defined through the research process. One needs to study in a systematicand controlled manner, and this is exactly what the research work provides an individual.2. Leads to great observations:In the field of education, the research helps in coming to one conclusion. That conclusion canbe achieved by observing the facts and figures in depth.13So, such in-depth knowledge is provided by following various research methods only. In thisway, research also assists in leading to greater observations.3. Results in predictions, theories, and many principles:The researchers come up with the valid predictions, theories and great results through theobservations, hypothesis and the research queries. So, this way also it helps researchers tocome up with the great conclusions.4. Improving practices:The educational research is important for the students to improve practices and at the sametime, it helps in improving those individuals who really wish to bring improvement in thosepractices.So, this way educational research helps in overall improvement of the individual. Be it astudent or any teacher who is researching on some topic, it is of great help to them. It acts as alighthouse and empowers the individual.5. Develops new understanding related to the learning, teaching etc.:The educators are benefited through various researches as it helps them in having a betterunderstanding of the subject. Along with this, it develops greater understanding related to theteaching, learning and other educational administration.The new knowledge further helps in improving educational practices of the teachers and theprofessors.146. Helps in initiating the action:The research you do should result in performing some action or practice. So, the researchshould aim to produce the highest result which compliments the study. Also, you should makesure your study ensures the applicable findings so as to match the result.Research helps in performing well and also sheds away all the problems. This way, you are ableto understand the role of research which further helps in the decision-making process.7. Helps in decision making:The good research requires proper time and effort. It prepares the person for taking essentialdecisions which further necessitates the same from all the participants involved in the process.For better results, it is important for the participants to consider the required consequencesand all the risks involved in the whole process.8. Brings consistency in the work:When the work is done with full in-depth analysis, it tends to be right and accurate. The processof research help brings consistency in the work, which lessens the flaws and mistakes in thefinal outcome of the process.The consistency is needed in all sorts of work or you might have to end up getting the wrongand inaccurate result. The research takes lots of time and effort, so it is the duty of theresearcher to be specific and sure with the facts so that the end result is clean and without anysilly mistakes.9. Motivates others:The educational research builds patience because it is a lengthy process. In order to get fruitfulresults, you need to build patience and only then you will be able to motivate others.15Also, if your research is full of the right facts and figures, it will ultimately motivate others. Notjust this, an accurate research assists in enhancing the reader’s knowledge which might not bepossible for any other person.So, above are some of the benefits which research provides in the field of education. Every kindof research, every kind of method has been always useful and gives a positive result. In case,you find something fishy during the research work, it is advisable to consult someone superiorto you, or some expert.Research is useful in all the fields and is used by all the departments, whether public or private.
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